Review the major steps of water molecules’ journey from soil to a tree and into leaves. Describe how sugar from photosynthesis is transported throughout the plant.
Write a 1,000- to 1,500-word paper (In APA Style – see APA sample Paper), including the pictures requested below, describing primary and secondary growth in plants and the journey of water and sugar molecules in plants. Include the following points and principles:
Part 1: Primary and Secondary Cells and Tissues in Plants
- The three types of plant cells are parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma. For each, discuss the basic structure, function, the different types for parenchyma and sclerenchyma, and where in the plant they can be found.
- Include a picture of a cross section of a leaf (Include an APA formatted in-text citation). Label the following structures and then describe each of the following: epidermis, cutin, cuticle, guard cells, stomata, cortex, and vascular bundles.
- What is the function of a lenticel? How are intercellular spaces important for this function?
- Include a picture of a stem and label the nodes, internodes, apical meristems, leaf buds, and flower buds.
- Describe growth by apical meristems.
- Include a picture of a cross section of secondary growth in a woody species (Include an APA formatted in-text citation). Label the primary xylem and phloem, secondary xylem and phloem, fascicular cambium, and interfascicular cambium.
- In woody species, additional tissues are produced in the stem and root by two additional meristems. Name these meristems, and describe how they add secondary growth to the plant.
Part 2: Water, Sugar, and Mineral Transport in Plants
- Explain how each of the following mechanisms transports substances within the plant: symplast, osmosis, molecular pumps in the membranes, transport vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane, apoplast, and transfer cells.
- Describe the costs and benefits of transpiration for plants.
- Describe how glucose (sugar) is transported within a plant. Use the terms sieve cells, sieve tube members, companion cells, sieve pores, sieve areas, pressure flow hypothesis, sources (provide examples), sinks (provide examples), STM/CC complex, and osmotic potential in your response. Highlight these terms within your answer.
- Explain how water and minerals are absorbed and transported by the root system into the xylem and from the xylem into leaves. Include the terms xylem, tracheids, vessel elements, pit membranes, vessel, adhesion, cohesion, cohesion-tension, and transpiration. Highlight these terms within your answer.
You should have a minimum of 3 references for this assignment.
Direct Quotes are limited to 2 small quotes (less than 40 words).
Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Include all references and in-text citations – all should be formatted in APA style. Include an in-text citation for each paragraph (i.e. all paraphrased information must be cited, not just direct quotes), and include a references section. Assignments with either of these missing will be considered plagiarism and will not be graded.
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