@farhatullah – rome’s major urban structures

Please respond to the following, using sources under the Explore heading as the basis of your response:

  • Select one (1) of the following famous ancient Roman structures that you find most fascinating: Colosseum, Circus Maximus, Pantheon, insulae, or bath complexes. After exploring the related resource(s) below on Rome, describe one (1) structure that you found most fascinating. Identify two (2) specific aspects of the structure in question, and make a comparison to specific aspects of modern urban life.

Rome’s Major Urban Structures  


The Urban Structure I have chosen to discuss is:  Well this part is easy, just tell me which structure you are going to look at, either: Colosseum, Circus Maximus, Pantheon, insulae (which were Roman apartment buildings), or bath complexes (feel free to insert a picture in the discussion as well of your topic that might be cool)

Why I think this structure is so interesting? Discuss a few things about your structure that you find fascinating.  The Romans were amazing builders and each of these structures has some fascinating things about them to discuss.

What urban issue did this structure address? Each of these structures addressed urban issues that no other civilization had to deal with yet.  The sheer size of the city of Rome created these urban problems and the Romans developed unique solutions.  For example, if you discuss insulae you could address the fact that Rome had an expanding population and limited space.  Most other civilizations just built outward as they expanded, but Rome, which would eventually be a city of over a million people simply did not have enough land to build out, so did they do?  They built up!!!  Created apartment style housing for the first time in history

How this structure has impacted modern buildings? This part should be easy; all of these building structures have left an impact on modern building styles and techniques.  Again, if you’re assessing insulae, why do you think apartment buildings look the way they do, and are designed the way they are?  Well, because that’s how the Romans did it and each of these urban structures created a model for how future civilizations would design urban structures

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Debating asian american panethnicity | History homework help

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Paper 3: Debating Asian American Panethnicity -3 page paper-typed double spaced 14 pt. font

A. Write a 2 page presentation of your case. 

Overview Step 1 – lay out a brief exposition of Espiritu’s and Liu’s arguments. Step 2 – use historical and statistical evidence to support your own stance. 

We want to see a thesis in the first paragraph. 

Detailed Explanations of Step 1 and Step 2: Required Elements of the Paper 

For Step 1: 

• Use the excerpts I have given you. 

• You may draw on other material from their books, but you must analyze these passages thoroughly. Otherwise, I take off points. 

• You will need to explain the difference between the primordialist theory of ethnicity and the instrumentalist theory, (two sentences only!) before you get into Espiritu and Liu. 

o Espiritu is clearly an instrumentalist: she sees “Asian American identity” as a product of institution building. 

o Is Liu a primordialist? 

o Which side of the debate do you support? 

• Address the difference between “ethnicity” and “race,” and show how these concepts are tangled together. 

o Generally – “Asian American” = ethnicity 

o “Asian,” “Yellow” “Brown” = race 

• What does “Asian American,” or “Asian” mean to Eric Liu? Espiritu? To you? 

This leads you to Step 2: 

• Use evidence from the class readings to show cases of unity and disunity in the Asian American community[ies] historically. 

• Show how “Asians/Orientals” have been lumped together, and show how they have been distinguished from one another. 

• Discuss benefits and drawbacks of “unity/lumping” 

• Should Asian Americans “assimilate” or maintain a distinct identity? Can they ever “assimilate”? 

*Some things to think about (not required as part of the written paper, as long as you have thought these issues through): 

– What does Eric Liu mean by the term “accidental Asian”? 

– How does he feel about “assimilation”? 

– Liu often defines “Asian” in opposition to “white”. Which group[s] does Espiritu use as her reference point? 

– How do they deal with the question of ethnicity (sometimes called “Asian American subethnicity”) v. panethnicity? Are you born with your ethnic identity? Or do you learn it? 

– How do they treat the question of “cultural entrepreneurs”? 

– Liu protests that you cannot hear a unitary voice from “Asian Americans.” Espiritu acknowledges that there is no unitary voice (for example, Asian Americans are nearly equally divided between Republican and Democrat), but does not see that as a problem. What do you think? 

B. 1 page 

Personal statement. Your own personal thoughts and experiences. Free form. This is a good time to reflect back on paper #1. 

Passages for analysis in Paper #3 Not responsible for typos! Please check original passages in your books. 

Espiritu, Yen Le. “Constructing and Sustaining Asian Panethnicity.” In Asian American Panethnicity. Philadelphia,  PA: Temple University Press, 1993, p. 164. ISBN: 1566390966. 

The primordialist-instrumentalist debate in the ethnicity literature is primarily a debate over the relative importance of internal, cultural factors as opposed to external

(its about the culture inside more than outside)

, structural factors in explaining the development and maintenance of ethnic groups. The present study indicates that, at least in its origin, pan-Asian ethnicity was the product of material, political, and social pressures rather than cultural bonds.

(In the origin the original Asian ethnicity made most of the rules rather than the connection)

Asian Americans came together because they recognized that pan-Asian alliance was important, even essential, for the protection and advancement of their interests. But this is not to say that pan-Asian ethnicity is devoid of culture and sentiment. On the contrary, while panethnic groups may be circumstantially created, they are not circumstantially sustained (see Cornell 1988b).

(AA’s stick together bc of their interests [is what hes saying] , while Asians who live in the motherland stick together because of culture)

Once established, the panethnic group – through its institutions, leaders, and networks – produces and transforms panethnic culture and consciousness. (they work for everything the hard way) In the process, the panethnic idea becomes autonomous, capable of replenishing itself. Over time, it may even outlive the circumstances and interests that produced it, created conditions that sustain and revivify it. 

(over the years, when the culture seems to dilute itself, they rebuild it to regain the original effect)

Liu, Eric. “The Accidental Asian.” In The Accidental Asian: Notes of a Native Speaker. New York, NY: Vintage, 1999, 

Asian Americans belong not to a race so much as to a confederation, a big yellow-and-brown tent that covers a panoply of interests. 

(they are not categorized into a race group, they are categorized for their interests) And while those interests converge usefully on some points – antidiscrimination, open immigration – they diverge on many others. This is a “community,” after all, that consists of ten million people of a few dozen ethnicities, who have roots all across America and around the globe, whose families have been here anywhere from less than a week to more than a century, whose political beliefs run the ideological gamut, who are welfare mothers and multimillionaires, soldiers and doctors, believers and pagans.

(theyre not just people who are good at what they do they should be more known for how their families traveled across the sea and came from a ton of different backgrounds etc etc)

It would take an act of selective deafness to hear, in this cacophony, a unitary voice.

(you’re just being stubborn bc im right)



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His 204 a central theme (answer attached)

A central theme of this course is the “end of isolation” which our textbook describes in relationship to technology, politics, military, culture, and society. At times, the ending of isolation has resulted of periods of tension and struggle. In this paper, you will select ONE of the following topics from the list below, and through the use of primary and secondary research, you will describe the historical context of each question and trace the significance of this issue over time from 1865 to the present. Assess the challenges involved in the ending of this isolation, as well as the key people involved in the struggles. Five academic resources must be referenced within the research paper, including two from the Ashford Online library, and one primary source, which should represent a significant aspect of your research through meaningful contribution to your analysis of the selected topic. .

Topic Choices
Please select one of the following questions as the focus of your final paper:

  • How have African-Americans worked to end segregation, discrimination, and isolation to attain equality and civil rights?
  • In what ways has technology ended the physical and intellectual isolation of Americans?
  • How have wars and political ideologies resulted in the transition from an isolationist foreign policy in America to one in which the nation is now a global superpower?  
  • While women once had few life options beyond isolation in the domestic sphere, what historical developments presented new opportunities for women in society?
  • In contrast to the ending of isolation, in what ways did Native Americans experience the transition from freedom to isolation? How have they struggled to overcome this isolation?  

Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:

  1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
  • Title of paper
  • Student’s name
  • Course name and number
  • Instructor’s name
  • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least five scholarly resources, including a minimum of two from the Ashford Online Library and at least one a primary source.
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page


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    1. before 1763 what were the colonies use to doing for around 100

    1. Before 1763 what were the colonies use to doing for around 100 years?

    2. What were some of the mahor effects of the French and Indian War?

    3. Even though the proclamation of 1763 was supposed to promote peace, what did it do instead?

    4. The Stamp Act was the first tax placed on the colonies by Parliament (British Government ). What upset the colonists the most about the stamp act?

    5. What is “taxation without representation”? Know that is was one of the main reasons why most colonists opposed the Townshed and Tea Acts?

    6. What was the boston massacre. What did the Patriots use this event as?

    7. What were the Intolerable Acts? Who were they made to punish and why? What kinds of things did the acts do? What was their original name?

    8. Did the Intolerable Acts turn the colonies against each othe, or unite them together, and how?

    9. What did the fighting at Lexington and Concord prove?

    10. Which was a direct tax, the Sugar Act or the stamp act?

    11. Know what the Writs of Assistance allowed the British Soldiers to do?

    12. What did John Lock say, belive? Be able to explain it in detail?

    13. Who said “Give me liberty or give me death”? What did he mean by it?

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    Art project | History homework help



    Art 104

    Art Department

    S. Wascher



    Creative Art Project C





    To be subversive might be to undermine, upset, disrupt or sabotage something established or existing.









    , or posters, album cover, etc.

    and then de

    sign two separate, yet challenging and interesting

    subversive message

    s which reflect

    your ideas or meaning on a

    particular issue. Your subvertisements

    can be


    in a collage

    form using pieces of color paper, images or text from magazines or the Int



    This assignment will further your understanding of

    the visual elements and principles of design which become inherent in works of art.


    You may also use Photoshop or Illustrator, yet this is not a cut & paste of original items. You must modify t

    he original image.



    viewer should

    be able recognize your selected imagery, yet be able to see your new, original and unique





    Each finished image should be at least 8”W X 10”L and should cover the entire surface.


    You will also include a


    itten analysis

    with your subvertis


    ments, which should include the following:

    Briefly describe your process in creating your subvertisements. How did you decide on an idea and how did

    you go about putting things together.

    Explain your subversive


    ssage of


    your image



    Describe why your design

    s make

    great visual image


    , such as which visual elements and/or principles of design

    were utilized in your composition.

    Were your subvertisements successful or why were they not?

    Also, include with


    written analysis the original work which influenced your design


    For the written paper

    Font size should not be larger than Times New Roman 12, if you are using a different font style.

    Margins are standard

    1” top, bottom & sides. Don’t ai

    m to make larger margins and less text. Better to have smaller

    margins and more text. Paper should be approximately 2

    3 pages.

    Grading Criteria

    30 points maximum

    Two subvertisements and separate written paper will be

    graded on the following cr



    two challenging and

    interesting message



    s for







    print media




    The technical execution and clarity of your

    subvertisements. (8


    A written analysis which include

    s the above referenced items. (6



    Include copies of the originally selected print media. (3pts)

    Following directions





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    Essay review of a book on michigan history

    Our course is a survey of the grand sweep of Michigan history, as presented in a textbook.  In order to give you the opportunity to learn more about a particular aspect of the state’s history, I want you to read a book on the history of Michigan to be selected from the books listed in the Michigan History Bibliography (see Blackboard/Course Information/Bibliography of Michigan History), selecting from a category that most interests you.  I suggest that you take the list with you to the library and leaf through potential books before you make your selection. I want you to enjoy reading this book!


    For this assignment, you will write a 5-7-page paper that critically analyzes and reflects on the subject matter of the book.  Note that this assignment is not a book review but rather asks for you to write an essay review of the chosen book.  In addition to the particular information included in the work, you should think about how the author put the work together—the sources he or she used, the particular approach taken, whether it is intellectual, social, or cultural history, etc.  That is, I want you to explore the kind of process that historians engage in. 


    In organizing your paper, please follow the format outlined below.  You should discuss the historical narrative presented in the book—laying out the major points and themes covered by the author (see the format under items #1 and #2 listed below).  Second, you should analyze the way in which the author presents the material and then mention whether you believe he or she is successful in covering the topic.  Finally, you should compare and contrast the way(s) in which the book corresponds to the treatment of the topic in our textbook (if at all) or in class lectures.


    The aim of this exercise is two-fold:  (1) for you to learn more about a particular topic, based on reading a historical monograph, and (2) to reflect on the historical process of examining evidence and constructing narratives and arguments that present informed accounts of events, people, social movements, cities and regions, time periods, etc. 




    Your essay review should be formatted as you would any other formal paper:  it should be typed and double spaced, using 12 point font.  It should be constructed as follows:


    This should include your name, the course number, and the instructor’s name, single-spaced at the top of the first page.  Then provide the publication information for the book you are reviewing in place of a paper title.  See the following example (and note that you need to include the number of pages in the book):


    Thomas J. Sugrue.  The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit.  Princeton, N.J.:  Princeton University Press, 2005.  403 pp.


    Body of the paper:
    In fashioning the essay review, be sure to follow the format listed below (although you may find that the questions you ask of your book are different from these general ones!):


    1.     Identify the thesis of the book. 


    a.    Why is the author writing? 


    b.    What is the message he/she is attempting to convey? 


    c.     Why does it matter, that is, what is the significance of the topic?


    2.     Summarize the book. 


    a.    How is it organized? 


    b.    What is the focus of its chapters? 


    c.     What kinds of historical evidence does the author use to support his/her argument (that is, archival records, oral histories, secondary sources, etc.)?


    3.     Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the book. 


    a.    In what way is the author’s argument compelling? 


    b.    What aspect is particularly persuasive? 


    c.     Where does it fall short? 


    d.    Is anything missing?


    4.     Place the book in the context of the course. 


    a.    How does the book fit in with the material we have covered in the textbook, our lectures, and discussions? 


    b.    What does it add to your understanding of the historical topic it addresses that is different from the textbook? 


    c.     How does it compare to the coverage of the particular topic (if any) given in our textbook? 


    5.     Conclusion.


    a.    Sum up your assessment of the book.  One way to conclude is to note whether, were you to write an account of this topic, you would go about it in the same way as the author. Why or why not? In short, do you think this was a good book and that you learned something interesting from it?


    Note on plagiarism.  You will be submitting your paper via SafeAssign, which provides a report about the web pages you may have visited in putting your paper together.  DO NOT COPY AND PASTE FROM SOMEONE ELSE’S REVIEW OF YOUR BOOK!  I want to know what YOU think of this book, not what anyone else does.  If you plagiarize, you will receive 0 points for the assignment, which will bring down your course grade by one letter.


    Finally:  Save the file using your last name, for example:  “Richmond_Essay review” and then submit it to SafeAssign:  Blackboard/Course Information/Essay Review.  Note:  I cannot accept files sent via email.


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    Humanities unit 6 discussion | History homework help

    Because the Baroque Period in braced so many facets of human expression, I think it is worthwhile for you to have a choice as to which area you would like to explore and share with the class.  There are three areas from which to choose.  

    The first pertains to Baroque Music.  Enjoy a “Night at the Symphony” by listening to any of the selections from the ACTIVE LISTENING GUIDE in the MyArtsLab from Unit 6, or if you like, try any of the following as well:

     Johann Pachelbel’s Canon in D Major 
     Handel’s Messiah Hallelujah Chorus 
     J.S. Bach’s Toccata and Fugue in D Minor 
     J.S. Bach Air on G String 
     Arcangelo Corelli Sarabande 

    The second selection pertains to Baroque architecture.  Stroll among the grounds of some of the most opulent palaces in world history and give your impressions of at least two of the following:

     The Catherine Palace – Russia 
     Versailles – France 
      The Vatican and the Pope’s Residence 
     The Winter Palace – Russia 

    The third option focuses on painting and sculpture.  Visit the following site on Baroque Art and choose from a wide range of Painting and Sculpture.  Identify to works you found most engaging and describe what about them you found most captivating.

     Baroque Art and Sculpture 

    Keep in mind that you are required to have your original post on the discussion board by the end of the day Saturday and you need to read and reply to the posts of at least to other classmates by the end of the unit.

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    Color analysis | History homework help


    Describe two (2) color paintings by different artists (selected from the list or sources in the Explore section below) that you believe represent the following quote by Kandinsky on the subject of color in art. Justify your response. From Concerning the Spiritual in Art: “If you let your eye stray over a palette of colors, you experience two things. In the first place you receive a purely physical effect, namely the eye itself is enchanted by the beauty and other qualities of color. […] These are physical sensations, limited in duration. They are superficial, too, and leave no lasting impression behind if the soul remains closed. And so we come to the second result of looking at colors: their psychological effect. They produce a correspondent spiritual vibration, and it is only as a step towards this spiritual vibration that the physical impression is of importance. … Generally speaking, color directly influences the soul.” – Wassily Kandinsky. Discuss these ideas for the use of color and its impact in our own times, such as its effect for advertising and sales, or its impact in the workplace and home.




    Kandinsky on Color


    Chapters 33 and 34, works by Van Gogh, Seurat, Cezanne, Gauguin, Munch, Picasso, Braque, and Matisse


    New York’s Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Search names listed above at http://www.moma.org/collection/artist_index.php?start_initial=A&end_initial=A&unparsed_search=2


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    Visions of america since 1945 class – course project – popular music

    The Second World War heavily affected American popular music in the mid 1940’s. Songs of reunion with missing loved ones who went off to battle dominated the popular charts. Also, beginning in the late 1930’s, there was a resurgence of interest in folk music amongst the American public. This was due to a renewed interest that the American public had in the “common man”, or working class. The great depression era of the 1930’s had sparked this interest because so many people lost so much during that time in American history.


    Leadbelly and the Lomax Family Legacy


    John Lomax and his son Alan were a team of folklorists who set out to record folk musicians during the 1930’s. This week, we will look at their odyssey during the mid to late 1930’s to record American folks musicians such as Huddie “Leadbelly” Ledbetter. One of his best known songs, “Where Did You Sleep Last Night”, was famously covered by the band Nirvana in 1993. This cover is a prime example of how popular culture recycles itself, and is reinterpreted through different social groups.


    The Leadbelly recordings have become some of the most important records of early 20th Century American music. It is important to study the work of these men, because their recordings documented traditional African American music of the time, which paint a very authentic picture of life for black America during the 1930’s. It is also imperative to look at how this music heavily influenced Blues music, and consequently, Rock and Roll.


    The recordings that resulted from the work of the Lomax duo, show a public need for “authentic” American music. We need to examine why authentic music was so desired by the American public during that time. We must also ask, is it important that certain styles or genres of music retain some of their authenticity, and if so, why?


    Leadbelly’s first recordings were done in July of 1933 by the father of the Lomax team, John, at the Louisiana State Penitentiary in Angola, Louisiana. These recordings became famous across the country, and Leadbelly was released from jail. Leadbelly then subsequently became a signed recording artist with a major recording label. The truth behind the stories that were sung by men like Leadbelly was stories of poverty, perseverance, violence, love, and discrimination. This music brought the story of the black American experience into the homes of the American public, and began to change the sound of popular music in predominantly white communities at that time.


    The roots of popular music of the mid 1950’s, which sprang out of the releases from new musicians at the time such as Chuck Berry and Elvis, can be seen through the music of folk musicians such as Leadbelly. When listening to Elvis Presley’s “Jailhouse Rock”, we must ask, is this music authentic? Is this artist truly singing about his experiences in the State Penitentiary? Why does this matter? There is always a need for authenticity in even the most commercial areas of popular culture.




    Write an essay about the cultural impact of popular music on society, and how it reflects the social issues of its time of production.


    • Select a popular song from the era of your choice (1950’s – 2000’s), and discuss its cultural impact.
    • Analyze the meaning of the lyrics, and discuss how this song represents an element of popular culture/ American society. The main focus of your essay should be regarding symbolism, and the symbolic nature of the song you have chosen.
    • Give some background into the musician or musical group you have chosen.
    • Then, discuss some of the social and political issues present in American and, if relevant, international culture that were going on at the time of the song’s release.

    This paper should be 2-3 pages, in APA style, utilizing the college’s library resources. A minimum of one scholarly article should be included in your essay.

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    Looking for someone i can pay to write a paper to cover the following

    Students, please view the “Submit a Clickable Rubric Assignment” in the Student Center.
    Instructors, training on how to grade is within the Instructor Center.

    Assignment 2: Project Paper – Comparative Essay

    Due Week 8 and worth 200 points

    This “Assignment 2” writing assignment is a comparative essay focused on topics encountered in our HUM 111 class. The project will be based on research but will reflect your views and interpretation of the topic. This project is designed to help you stretch your mind and your abilities as an organized, innovative, and critical thinker. If approached properly, it should also be fun!

    Choose one (1) of the topics from the list of topic choices below. Read the topic carefully. Write a three to four (3-4) page paper (750-1,000 words) that follows instructions and covers each part of the topic. (The title page and References list do not get included in this word count).

    Note: Your instructor may require you to submit your topic choice for approval before the end of Week 5.

    For the topic you choose:

    1. Establish a clear thesis about your topic as part of the introductory paragraph (often the thesis is the last thing one determines after doing the basic research and outline; however it will be placed in the first paragraph of your paper).
    2. This is a comparative essay. Comparison approached properly will require some critical thinking on your part. Use a point-by-point approach for the essay. That means, if comparing subject A with subject B, don’t do the first half of the essay on subject A and then the second half on subject B–that will seem like two (2) separate essays and comparisons will tend to get lost. Instead, you should be mentioning both subjects in most of your paragraphs as you compare them throughout the essay. Comparisons will identify similarities as well as contrasts.
    3. Do not try to do everything on your two (2) subjects. You should end up narrowing your focus to a few insights and issues about the subjects being compared. And, from those fairly specific points of comparison, you will develop a thesis and glean some lessons.
    4. Follow closely the instructions below for your specific topic.
    5. Include a concluding paragraph at the end. This paragraph will, in some way, refer back to the thesis established in your first paragraph, since now you have demonstrated and supported it. It may be here that you also include your observations relating your study to the modern workplace or society (see your topic). Try to finish with flair!
    6. Use at least three (3) good quality academic sources, with one (1) source being the class text. Note: Wikipedia and other similar Websites do not qualify as academic resources. You are highly encouraged to use the Resource Center tab at the top of your Blackboard page.


    Topic Choices – Choose just one (1) of the topics below:

    • Qualities of the Hero: Comparing Gilgamesh and Odysseus. Write an essay comparing these two (2) heroic figures from ancient epics of different cultures, especially focusing your analysis on the sources about their encounters with monsters: Gilgamesh encounters the monster guarding the forest, Humbaba, in Tablets 3-5 of the Epic of Gilgamesh (see http://www.sacred-texts.com/ane/eog/ ). Odysseus encounters Polyphemus the Cyclops in Book 9 of The Odyssey (see http://www.theoi.com/Text/HomerOdyssey9.html; from line 105 to the end). Your paper should:  

    a) Compare Gilgamesh and Odysseus as to their heroic qualities, noting similarities and differences, using specific examples from the epics.

    b) Summarize what this indicates about differences between ancient Mesopotamian and Greek cultures in their ideals and expectations.

    c) From this comparison, suggest ways that current cultural ideals and expectations shape modern notions about role models and heroes.


    • Confucius and Aristotle on Virtue. Write an essay comparing these two (2) ancient thinkers on the concept of virtue or good ethical character and conduct. Stay focused on the issue; keep any biographical or other information short or limited. As much as possible, analyze their writings (in translation, of course), using Confucius’ Analects (at http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.html ) and Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics (at http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.html ). Your paper should:

    a) Compare the teachings of Confucius and Aristotle on what constitutes virtue or good ethical character and conduct, noting similarities and differences in specific ideas or emphasis.

    b) Consider what your findings suggest about differences between ancient Chinese and ancient Greek culture.

    c) From this comparison, suggest ideas of virtue that can apply to ethics in a modern setting, such as a diverse workplace.   


    • Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece. Write an essay comparing the way gods and humans were depicted in sculpture in ancient India and Greece, and identify the cultural values and ideals that these art works reflect in each case. Your paper should:      

    a) Using specific examples, compare the way gods and people were depicted in the sculptures of ancient India and Greece, noting similarities and differences.

    b) Identify the cultural values and ideals that these art works reflect for each society.  

    c) From this comparison, suggest a modern situation of artistic expression and the ways it reflects or counters prevailing cultural values.   


    • Comparing Ancient Skeptics. Write an essay comparing Lucretius and Wang Chong (=Wang Ch’ung), skeptical philosophers of ancient Rome and China. They were skeptical about popular religious and spiritual beliefs and widely-held superstitions. Lucretius was an Epicurean philosopher of Roman culture (Chapter 6). Wang Ch’ung was a thinker in ancient Chinese culture (Chapter 7). Focus your comparison on their writings as found at http://www.humanistictexts.org/lucretius.htm and http://www.humanistictexts.org/wangchung.htm#On Not Flying to Heaven. Your paper should:

    a) Using examples from their writings, compare these two (2) thinkers on their views about specific subjects and on their approach in explaining and expressing their skepticism.

    b) From this comparison, identify popular beliefs in each culture that seem similar and those that seem different.

    c) From this comparison, suggest any modern situation in which materialist skeptics confront spiritual and religious beliefs, and comment on the considerations of free expression and cultural respect.     


    • Comparing Ancient Male Rulers. Take any two (2) of these rulers and write an essay comparing them: Ramses II, Shihuangdi, Constantine, Ashoka, Pericles, or Charlemagne. Select rulers from different cultures. You may also propose (for approval or not) a ruler not listed. Avoid lengthy quoting or lengthy close paraphrasing from biographical sources. Make it YOUR comparative analysis. Your paper should:

    a) Compare the two (2) rulers in terms of their situation and methods of rule and their apparent ideals and practices, noting similarities and differences. Use specific examples.

    b) Consider what your study suggests about the cultures over which they ruled, identifying any similarities and differences between the cultures.

    c) From this comparison, suggest lessons about different types of effective leadership in the world of modern business and / or modern politics.   


    • Comparing Ancient Female Rulers. Compare the Tang Empress Wu Zetian (also known as Empress Wu or as Wu Zhao; ruled China around 690-705 AD) with either the Pharaoh Cleopatra (ruled Egypt around 51-31 BC) or the Pharaoh Hatshepsut (ruled Egypt around 1478-1458 BC). You may also propose (for approval or not) a female ruler not listed. Avoid lengthy quoting or lengthy close paraphrasing from biographical sources. Make it YOUR comparative analysis. Your paper should:

    a) Compare the two (2) rulers in terms of their situation and ascent to power, their methods of rule, and their achievements and resourcefulness, noting similarities and differences. Use specific examples.

    b) Consider what your study suggests about the cultures over which they ruled, identifying any similarities and differences between the cultures.

    c) From this comparison, suggest lessons about different types of effective leadership by a female in the world of modern business and / or modern politics.   


    • Other topic choice using a comparative approach (proposed by student or instructor) and approved by the professor and supported by the grading rubric.

    The Project Paper will be graded on:

    1. The level to which the instructions were followed for the paper generally and for the specific topic.
    2. The establishment of a clear thesis about your topic.
    3. The adequacy and relevance of information, examples, and details which support the general thesis.
    4. Covering each part of the topic as instructed, including the comparisons, the consideration of ancient cultural differences, and the reflection on lessons for modern society or the modern workplace.
    5. The quality of your research and your persuasiveness using critical reasoning.
    6. The use and acknowledgement of a minimum of three (3) required references (the class textbook plus at least two (2) other quality academic sources) documented using the APA style –including both the use of a proper References list and the use of proper in-text citations.
    7. Adherence to standard rules of grammar, punctuation, paragraphing, and mechanics, and general clarity of presentation.


    Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

    • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides. Both in-text citations and a References list are required. Citations and references must follow APA style format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions specific to the selected topic. (Note: Students can find APA style materials located in the course shell for guidance).
    • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length. For our purposes, you may omit any abstract page.

    The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

    • Explain how key social, cultural, and artistic contributions contribute to historical changes.
    • Explain the importance of situating a society’s cultural and artistic expressions within a historical context.
    • Examine the influences of intellectual, religious, political, and socio-economic forces on social, cultural, and artistic expressions.
    • Identify major historical developments in world cultures during the eras of antiquity to the Renaissance.
    • Use technology and information resources to research issues in the study of world cultures.
    • Write clearly and concisely about world cultures using proper writing mechanics.

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