Ashford university eng 125 week 2 assignment


Proposal for final paper—Week 1


Once you have decided on an approved prompt and approved text(s), respond to the questions below.  Please be mindful of the word count and double-space all of your responses.  You are to meet the minimum word requirement without going over the maximum number of words requested.


1.       What is your chosen prompt for the literary analysis assignment?

(Use the space below to complete this section. Include the number and first sentence of the prompt you chose from the list of prompts.)                                                 


I have chosen prompt number two for my literary analysis: write an analysis of a key character in a literary work.


2.       What interests you most about this prompt and why?

(Use the space below to complete this section. Your response must be 100 to 150 words.)

I have chosen the second prompt because it seems interesting to me to analyze a character. Characters are the most important part of any story and their actions are what moves the story forward, and through them, we gain knowledge about the author’s intent in writing the story. There are various motivations behind the actions of a character. Authors often try to make points and share more information with the reader through the actions and decisions of a character. Analyzing a character and their actions will allow me to understand the story better, as well as gain a better insight into the moral of the story.


3.       What text(s) will you write about? Why?

(Use the space below to complete this section. Your response must be 100 to 150 words.)

I have chosen to write about Shakespeare’s Macbeth.  I have always been interested in the literature of Shakespeare but have never read Macbeth. I saw very little of a movie based on Macbeth but do not know much about the plot or storyline. Now that I have been given the opportunity to base a character analysis on a character of my choosing, I am also given the opportunity to read the play. Although I have always had the option of reading this work of literature at my leisure, reading it for this assignment will make it a mandatory thing that I must do, rather than something I may get around to reading someday.


4.       What is your working thesis? Keep in mind that “working thesis” means you can slightly modify your thesis for the draft and/or final essay.

(Use the space below to complete this section. Your thesis statement must be ONLY one to two sentences long.)

Macbeth is a strong, moral character who becomes convinced, by his wife, that he must kill his good friend, King Duncan, in order to gain his crown and title. In a fit of greed fueled by his wife, Macbeth is thrown into a world of guilt and shame, for this outcome was not what he wanted.


5.       What are three key ideas that you will discuss in support of your thesis?  (Write one — and only one — sentence for each point.

a.       Macbeth was a loyal and faithful general of the king’s army, thankful to him for the ranks he had already been given by the king.

b.       Macbeth is easily persuaded by his wife, Lady Macbeth, to kill the king in order to become king of Scotland.

c.       Macbeth becomes tormented with guilt and fearful that he will get caught and is forced to commit more horrible acts in order to cover up murdering the king.





6.       What questions/concerns do you have at this point about your project?

(Use the space below to complete this section. Your response must be 75 to 150 words long.)


One question I have about this project is whether or not we will be able to change our prompts once we have chosen one. I have never read Macbeth and am unsure if the prompt I have chosen will suit the literature I have chosen or if I will find another prompt to be more interesting once I have read the play.


One concern I have about this prompt is analyzing the character’s psychological background and how simple that may be to do based on only the actions we read about in the literature. Is this something we will learn to do through the course of this class?


That’s my week 1 assignment. You’ll need that to complete week 2 assignment. 



Which is as follows :

The Annotated Bibliography

  • Must be 100 to 150 words for each entry and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must copy and paste the writing prompt.
  • Must restate your working thesis.
  • Must use at least one primary source and two scholarly sources in addition to the course text.
  • Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.


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Leader profile leadership 2.2 | Literature homework help

Many argue that the single largest variable in organizational success is leadership. Effective leadership can transform an organization and create a positive environment for all stakeholders. In this assignment, you will have the chance to evaluate a leader and identify what makes him/her effective.

Consider all the leaders who have affected your life in some way. Think of people with whom you work—community leaders, a family member, or anyone who has had a direct impact on you.

  • Choose one leader you consider to be effective. This can be a leader you are personally aware of, or someone you don’t know, but have observed to be an effective leader. Write a paper addressing the following:
    • Explain how this leader has influenced you and why you think he or she is effective.
    • Analyze what characteristics or qualities this person possesses that affected you most.
    • Rate this leader by using a leadership scorecard. This can be a developed scorecard, or one you develop yourself. If you use a developed scorecard, please be sure to cite the sources of the scorecard. Once you have identified your scorecard, rate your leader. You decide what scores to include (for example, scale of 1–5, 5 being the highest) but be sure to assess the leader holistically across the critical leadership competencies you feel are most important (for example, visioning, empowering, strategy development and communication).
    • Critique this individual’s skills against what you have learned about leadership so far in this course. Consider the following:
      • How well does he/she meet the practices covered in your required readings?
      • How well has he/she adapted to the challenges facing leaders today?
      • If you could recommend changes to his/her leadership approach, philosophy, and style, what would you suggest? Why?
  • Using the assigned readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet including general organizational sources like the Wall Street Journal, BusinessWeek, or Harvard Business Review, build a leadership profile of the leader you selected. Include information from personal experiences as well as general postings on the selected leader from Internet sources such as blogs. Be sure to include 2–3 additional resources not already included in the required readings in support of your leadership profile.

Write a 3–5-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

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Business challenges 2.2 | Literature homework help

Designing Value-Based Service

As the rate of innovation increases, companies face expanding product/service lines, shorter product and service lifecycles, and more frequent product/service transitions. All of these can bring tremendous value but also pose enormous challenges and risks.

The article “The Art of Managing New Product Transitionsby Erhun, Gonclave, and Hopman (2007) from the readings for this module includes a matrix titled “Product Drivers and Risk Factors,” which focuses on Intel, a company that manufactures high-tech products (p. 76). Based on your readings and research, address the following issues:

  • Redesign the product risk factor matrix so that the factors are appropriate for a services firm that delivers traditional tax accounting and audit services. For example, among the supply risks, assume that the company relies on individuals with specific knowledge of the tax law in the jurisdictions where its clients operate, be it state, federal, or foreign.
  • Now, assume that the firm wants to develop a management consultancy practice. (Alternatively, you may choose to add a legal services line instead.). Create a separate new matrix that summarizes the additional risk factors for this firm launching a management consultancy or legal services line. What additional risk factors are you adding to your matrix?
  • Explain how the business risks differ between traditional tax and audit services and management consulting services. In your opinion, what are the three biggest risks the firm faces if it diversifies into the new service line?
  • Recommend whether the firm should organically grow into a consultancy service or acquire a third party to achieve new goals. Justify your recommendations.

Develop a 6–8-slide presentation in PowerPoint format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Be sure to include the following in your presentation:

  • A title slide
  • An agenda slide
  • A reference slide
  • Headings for each section
  • Speaker notes to support the content in each slide

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Final exam.docx write a scene between any two main characters from

Final EXAM.docx Write a scene between any two main characters from any of the plays we have studied that takes place 5 years after the action of the play ends. Place them in a specific setting, in a specific context. The meeting cannot be accidental-one  character must have initiated it for a reason. Each character must want something in the scene. Your scene must follow the dramatic structure of a play:exposition, complication, rising action, climax and denouement.


1-      Option 3: Write a scene between any two main characters from any of the plays we have studied that takes place 5 years after the action the play ends.

I have chosen to write a scene for the play “Master Harold”… and the boys” between Hally and his father.

We are in 1955 and it is ahot summer afternoon in South Africa.  The St. George’s Park Tea Room has closed earlier and all the servants have finished their work and have gotten their salary.

Other elements: A table, twochairs, a box of candies and a glass of milk. In the kitchen, there are several bottles of different types of alcohol.


At the table, Hally is 20’s, is reading an article in the newspaper where they talk about a boycott in the United States.

He is totally focused on the article and at the same time, he is taking notes in his notebook.

At the almost end of the room there is his father, in his mid-fifties, reading a coming book.


          Hally’s father: Ahahaha… that is so funny.

(Hally continues to read his article)

          Hally’s father: They are so ugly these people. Hey, chum don’t you find them ugly?

          Hally: They are whatever you say they are dad; just let me read my article.

          Father: What are you reading?

          Hally: I am reading an article about the Montgomery Bus Boycott in the United States.

          Father: Why is there a boycott?

          Hally: A black woman was thrown in jail because she refused to give her place to a white man.

          Father: She deserves it then, she should have just given her place if she did not want to go to jail.

          Hally: You know that is exactly why I cannot talk to you. You are always ready to judge.

          Father: What do you mean? The white man has always the priority over the black. You should know that.

          Hally: It is not a question of color; it is a question of respect. No one should have forced her to cede her place.In addition, she was respectively at the coloured section.

          Father: Come on, Hally. Don’t tell me that now you are defending that stupid nigger?

          Hally: Is there a problem with that? I think that South Africa need people like this to make a change.

          Father: What? That is so insane. You have been brainwashed. Did Sam and Willie put all of this and your head?

          Hally: Leave them alone.

          Father: Oh, I have hurt you. I always knew that these hooligans were important to you. (taking a drop of alcohol)

          Hally: I am ashamed of you. I always wonder why you are my father. You are such a racist.

          Father: I always wonder why you are my son. Always defending these primitives’ people.

          Hally: I defend them because they are always oppressed and that I believe at least one day, all of this discrimination will stop.

          Father: I would rather be dead rather to see that day where blacks would be granted the same right as white.

          Hally: Then you better. Because that day, I will be walking in the streets of South Africa with them. This day will be a new chapter in their lives and new Day for Africa.

(Father starts to get angry, tries to take his crutches and he gets up)

          Shut your mouth Hally. You are saying bullshit.

          That day, they will be not considered as Blacks, hooligans, nor primitives. They will be considered as human beings just like you and me. They will not be judged by their color or physics but by their capacity.

(his father throws a bottle of alcohol, but he misses Hally).

          STOP. I am tired of your bullshit. I did not raise you for that.

          Yeah. You are right. You did not raise me for that. Simple, you did not raise me at all. You were always drinking and saying racist jokes. I am just tired of your behavior.  Sam is much better than you are.

          Ah. You prefer this black servant as your server than me.(pushing Hally) Then go find your animal. You are alike.

(Hespits in his father’s face).

          This is for insulting me.

          Get away from me.

          I want to go far away from you. No one can live with you. If they are near to you, you contaminate them with your ideas. Five years ago, at the same place I spat in Sam’s face for your consent. Today, I do it to you because I realized what I have done to him was wrong. Do not ever talk to me again, forget me as your son because I have already forgotten you as my father. ( He exits the Tea room and leaves his father in tears.)










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Analyzing the song ” just the way you are ” 4 pages essay for this

analyzing the song ” just the way you are ” 4 pages essay

For this essay, you will conduct a critical analysis of the implied message of a love song- it can be a song about new love, a tough break up, staying together, a crush, etc. your job as an analytical critic is to find out what message the song is communicating to its audience. what assumption, belief, diatribe, or lesson about love is being delivered? your thesis should make a declaration regarding the delivered message of your chosen song what idea about love and or romance does the message perpetuate? the message you find should reflect what the song makes the listener to feel and believe about romance. How does the song communicate this message and why? dont forget about explaning the significance of your analysis: why should a reader care about a deeper examination of a Taylor Swift song ? is it helpful? is it harmful ? is it cathartic?

As friendly reminder, dont get cought up in the song- what literally happens in the song or the story is less important for discussion than your critique of how romance/love is presented and why. your analysis should apply outside of the song by exposing a larger cultural assumption society makes about love and why.


4-6 pages , MLA format, third person perspective


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Response to discussion forum | Literature homework help

Three questions below

READ the other students’ original response and WRITE responses to each of them. Your comments will add a discussion thread for each. To be eligible for full credit, each response needs to be at least 150 words and offer fresh opinions and relevant new information, your own personal perspective or further questions about your colleague’s position.


Question 1.

Forgiveness figures prominently in the passages from the Bible. Jesus compared God to the angry king who revoked his forgiveness and threw the once-forgiven servant into jail. Can God really revoke his forgiveness and still be fair? Jesus warned, “So my Father will do to you if you do not forgive your brother from the heart.” But does threatening help a person to forgive?

Jessica’s Response- I think that God can revoke His forgiveness and still be fair.  As stated in Matthew 18:35, “That’s what my heavenly Father will do to you if you refuse to forgive your brothers and sisters from your heart.”  God wants us to repent and accept Him as our Savior.  He created us in His likeness and He offers forgiveness freely to all who repent.  That is the key, repentance.  This lesson is taught from the beginning.  How can we expect God to forgive us if we cannot forgive?  Just as in the Lord’s Prayer in Matthew 6:12, “and forgive us our sins, as we have forgiven those who sin against us.”  We are to understand that to be forgiven means to forgive.  I do think that threatening helps a person to understand the importance of forgiveness.  I do not think God is threatening us with malicious intent, but begging us to forgive others so that He can open the gates of heaven to us when our time on earth is done.  To say to a sinner that if we are unable to forgive our brother or sister for their ill will towards us means that God will do to us what we have been unable to forgive is so powerful.  God knows all whether seen or unseen, He knows our hearts.  He wants us to understand that we cannot hide from Him and He wants us to be able to truly forgive others.  We are habitual sinners, all of us.  After all, God sent His son to die for all of our sins before we were even formed.  His son paid the ultimate price for sins we had yet to commit, and He forgave us.  How can we deny forgiveness to a brother or sister, whom we know and love?

Question 2.“Workers in the Vineyard” is a very disturbing parable of Jesus, perhaps offensive to some people. Would you want to work for this farmer who paid everyone the same wage regardless of how long they worked? What would be your reaction if in the end the instructor gave every student an A for this course? Most of us are employees in hospitals, clinics or other health care facilities. On what basis should the amount we get paid be made: Seniority? Performance? Percentage of income generated? Level of responsibility? Anything else?

Jessica’s Response-When reading this passage I understood that farmers point.  The workers he hired in the morning agreed to a set price and the farmer honored those wages.  They had no reason to be upset with the farmer because not only did he honor his word, but the workers also left with money, which they had none of in the beginning.  However, my outlook also makes me a hypocrite.  If it were me, I’d be upset as well.  Assuming that since the workers, who arrived late in the day, received wages equal to what was promised to me; I would be disappointed and upset when I received the same wage thinking the farmer was feeling generous in his payments to the other workers and that he was going to pay me more because I worked longer.  This is an irrational way of thinking, but is part of our sinful nature.

If I knew that at the end of this course the instructor gave everyone an A I would be upset.  I know how much effort and work I have put into this course and truly believe that my grade is a reflection of that.  If everyone receives an A regardless of his or her work ethic what is the point to strive?  Realistically, it shouldn’t matter to me what anyone else receives as their grade, I should just be happy with an A.

I think that the rate in which we should get paid should depend on several factors.  I do not know if I think that seniority should be a basis, but experience.  Employees shouldn’t discuss his or her wages amongst one another so there should never be a reason for discrepancy.  I have found that just because an employee has been with the company for “X” amount of years doesn’t necessarily mean that a new employee should make less because they are new, especially if they have more experience than the current employee.  I do think that performance reviews are also important regarding wages, particularly annual raises.  Not every employee performs at the same level and if an employee is unhappy with his or her raise based on performance review that should give him or her incentive to strive to do better.  I think that wage based on percentage of income generated depends on the job itself.  Retail sales are typically based on percentage of income generated.  Although I think it may apply in some instances, I do not think that basing wages on generated income works in all venues.

Question 3: The Good Samaritan is one of the best known stories of Jesus. How did the Jews treat the Samaritans in Jesus’ time? What do you see to be the main truths displayed in this parable? If you were to re-tell the story using characters from your city, who would play the role of the priest, the Levite, the Samaritan and the man wounded by robbers?

Roberts Response- Jews and Samaritans trace their ancestry to Abraham and king David. Therefore, they are considered blood brothers. One would think that as blood brothers they would get along very well, but their history had fueled rage towards each other and continued throughout the era Christ lived. The relationship between them was very poor and deteriorated to the point that devout Jews will not step foot on Samaria to cross to Jerusalem. Although both Jews and Samaritans believed and worshipped the same God, they could not live without showing a hostile attitude to each other. But the Parable of the Good Samaritan reveals to us that true love knows no boundaries. The Good Samaritan in this Parable out of love helped the gentleman who had been badly assaulted. This Good Samaritan was a foreigner compared to the priest (religious person) and the Levite (layman), yet he had mercy for the wounded, helped him and paid for his treatment, whiles the so-called men of God did not bother to help the wounded. This Parable sounds familiar with experiences we witness in our communities in contemporary times. Our local and town officials trumpet their intent to championing economic developments which barely happens, yet they corrupt themselves with all sort of deals including fat packages for their retirement at the expense of the struggling tax payer. The Good Samaritans in my community include the ordinary citizens who care enough to contribute to Food Banks to feed the poor, those who organize marathons and lemonade stands around town to help fund medical research, medical personnel (Doctors, Nurses, Technologist, etc.) who devote their time and money to travel to poor countries around the world to provide basic health services to many who cannot afford health care. I perceive any member of society regardless of their age, gender, race and status, who might need help to be likened to the wounded man in the parable. We all might need help from someone at one point from someone in our lives.


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Transformational leadership 2.1 | Literature homework help

Transformational Leadership

Change is considered by many as the new normal. Effective change management must be part of an organization’s DNA. An emerging leadership style called the transformational style has been shown to be effective in this environment, especially in leading change. This form of leadership goes beyond traditional forms of leadership which relied mainly on centralized control. It emphasizes more open communication, collaboration, and participation by employees.

Using the assigned readings, the Argosy University online library resources, and the Internet, research the transformational style of leadership.

Then, respond to the following:

  • What are the key attributes of the transformational style of leadership? Explain why you think these attributes are required of a transformational leader.
  • From either personal experience, or through observation, provide examples of transformation leadership.  
  • Which of the other leaders who you have seen come close to being effective transformational leaders? How could they have changed to be transformational leaders? Justify your answer with appropriate examples.

Write your initial response in approximately 300 words.

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Follow direction by the step

·         Final Project

Now it’s your turn! Below is all the information given on a training program needed, called Effective Communication. You are a trainer in the given situation. Please submit the following:

1.    Training Needs Assessment (refer to part 1 of Week 2 assignment “DST Systems” for assessment template)

2.    Powerpoint covering information provided and your own research, 10 slide minimum, bullet format 

3.    700 word APA formatted paper summarizing how this training will be effective and how it should be evaluated.

All three files must be submitted as attachments…three total.




Tim Smith the IT manager comes to you and says “My project coordinators are in a slump; they just are not producing their usual caliber of work. I need to find out what the problem is. No one on the project team knows what is going on. The communcation my project coordinators are giving is coming across as rude, which in turn keeps moral low and the teams are not doing the work. I was hoping you would be able to put together an Effective Communication training for them to help get everyone back on the right track.” There are 10 project coordinators in the IT department. Two of the project coordinator’s are in the organization’s Bangkok office. Tim wants the training to last no longer than 4 hours and wants it to be face to face in a class room with you, the trainer. He does not want to fly the Bangkok assoicates in and would like you to set up a Skype session with them during your training. He also wants you to set up weekly coaching sessions with each project manager and himself for a month after the training is completed.

Training Purchased from USA Training: Effective Communication

You are to use this information, but are not limited to it. Tim wants to make sure this information is covered in the training as he went online and bought it from USA Training, however he is open to what research you find. He wants the training to be interactive and requested that you included at least 1 activity around communication in the training.

Effective Communcation:

People in organizations typically spend over 75% of their time in an interpersonal situation; thus it is no surprise to find that at the root of a large number of organizational problems is poor communications. Effective communication is an essential component of organizational success whether it is at the interpersonal, inter-group, intra-group, organizational, or external levels.
In this chapter we will cover the basic process of communication and then we will cover some of the most difficult communication issues managers’ face-providing constructive and effective feedback and performance appraisal.

The Communication Process
Although all of us have been communicating with others since our infancy, the process of transmitting information from an individual (or group) to another is a very complex process with many sources of potential error.

In any communication at least some of the “meaning” lost in simple transmission of a message from the sender to the receiver. In many situations a lot of the true message is lost and the message that is heard is often far different than the one intended. This is most obvious in cross-cultural situations where language is an issue. But it is also common among people of the same culture.

Communications is so difficult because at each step in the process there major potential for error. By the time a message gets from a sender to a receiver there are four basic places where transmission errors can take place and at each place, there are a multitude of potential sources of error. Thus it is no surprise that social psychologists estimate that there is usually a 40-60% loss of meaning in the transmission of messages from sender to receiver.

It is critical to understand this process, understand and be aware of the potential sources of errors and constantly counteract these tendencies by making a conscientious effort to make sure there is a minimal loss of meaning in your conversation.

It is also very important to understand that a majoring of communication is non-verbal. This means that when we attribute meaning to what someone else is saying, the verbal part of the message actually means less than the non-verbal part. The non-verbal part includes such things as body language and tone.

Barriers to Effective Communication
There are a wide number of sources of noise or interference that can enter into the communication process. This can occur when people now each other very well and should understand the sources of error. In a work setting, it is even more common since interactions involve people who not only don’t have years of experience with each other, but communication is complicated by the complex and often confliction relationships that exist at work. In a work setting, the following suggests a number of sources of noise:

·         Language: The choice of words or language in which a sender encodes a message will influence the quality of communication. Because language is a symbolic representation of a phenomenon, room for interpretation and distortion of the meaning exists. In the above example, the Boss uses language (this is the third day you’ve missed) that is likely to convey far more than objective information. To Terry it conveys indifference to her medical problems. Note that the same words will be interpreted different by each different person. Meaning has to be given to words and many factors affect how an individual will attribute meaning to particular words. It is important to note that no two people will attribute the exact same meaning to the same words.

·         Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past

·         Misreading of body language, tone and other non-verbal forms of communication

·         Noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)

·         Receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues

·         Power struggles

·         Self-fulfilling assumptions

·         Language-different levels of meaning

·         Assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you

·         Distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people

·         Perceptual Biases: People attend to stimuli in the environment in very different ways. We each have shortcuts that we use to organize data. Invariably, these shortcuts introduce some biases into communication. Some of these shortcuts include stereotyping, projection, and self-fulfilling prophecies. Stereotyping is one of the most common. This is when we assume that the other person has certain characteristics based on the group to which they belong without validating that they in fact have these characteristics.

·         Interpersonal Relationships: How we perceive communication is affected by the past experience with the individual. Perception is also affected by the organizational relationship two people have. For example, communication from a superior may be perceived differently than that from a subordinate or peer

·         Cultural Differences: Effective communication requires deciphering the basic values, motives, aspirations, and assumptions that operate across geographical lines. Given some dramatic differences across cultures in approaches to such areas as time, space, and privacy, the opportunities for mis-communication while we are in cross-cultural situations are plentiful.

Reading Nonverbal Communication Cues
A large percentage (studies suggest over 90%) of the meaning we derive from communication, we derive from the non-verbal cues that the other person gives. Often a person says one thing but communicates something totally different through vocal intonation and body language. These mixed signals force the receiver to choose between the verbal and nonverbal parts of the message. Most often, the receiver chooses the nonverbal aspects. Mixed messages create tension and distrust because the receiver senses that the communicator is hiding something or is being less than candid.
Nonverbal communication is made up of the following parts:




20.Use of time, space, and image


This often called body language and includes facial expression, eye movement, posture, and gestures. The face is the biggest part of this. All of us “read” people’s faces for ways to interpret what they say and feel. This fact becomes very apparent when we deal with someone with dark sunglasses. Of course we can easily misread these cues especially when communicating across cultures where gestures can mean something very different in another culture. For example, in American culture agreement might be indicated by the head going up and down whereas in India, a side-to-side head movement might mean the same thing.
We also look to posture to provide cues about the communicator; posture can indicate self-confidence, aggressiveness, fear, guilt, or anxiety. Similarly, we look at gestures such as how we hold our hands, or a handshake. Many gestures are culture bound and susceptible to misinterpretation

This involves the use of touch to impart meaning as in a handshake, a pat on the back, an arm around the shoulder, a kiss, or a hug.

The meaning of words can be altered significantly by changing the intonation of one’s voice. Think of how many ways you can say “no”-you could express mild doubt, terror, amazement, anger among other emotions. Vocal meanings vary across cultures. Intonation in one culture can mean support; another anger
Use of Time as Nonverbal Communication:
Use of time can communicate how we view our own status and power in relation to others. Think about how a subordinate and his/her boss would view arriving at a place for an agreed upon meeting…

Physical Space:
For most of us, someone standing very close to us makes us uncomfortable. We feel our “space” has been invaded. People seek to extend their territory in many ways to attain power and intimacy. We tend to mark our territory either with permanent walls, or in a classroom with our coat, pen, paper, etc. We like to protect and control our territory. For Americans, the “intimate zone” is about two feet; this can vary from culture to culture. This zone is reserved for our closest friends. The “personal zone” from about 2-4 feet usually is reserved for family and friends. The social zone (4-12 feet) is where most business transactions take place. The “public zone” (over 12 feet) is used for lectures. Similarly, we use “things” to communicate. This can involve expensive things, neat or messy things, photographs, plants, etc. Image: We use clothing and other dimensions of physical appearance to communicate our values and expectations

Nonverbal Communication:
A “majority” of the meaning we attribute to words comes not from the words themselves, but from nonverbal factors such as gestures, facial expressions, tone, body language, etc. Nonverbal cues can play five roles:

21.Repetition: they can repeat the message the person is making verbally

22.Contradiction: they can contradict a message the individual is trying to convey

23.Substitution: they can substitute for a verbal message. For example, a person’s eyes can often convey a far more vivid message than words and often do

24.Complementing: they may add to or complement a verbal message. A boss who pats a person on the back in addition to giving praise can increase the impact of the message

25.Accenting: non-verbal communication may accept or underline a verbal message. Pounding the table, for example, can underline a message.

Skillful communicators understand the importance of nonverbal communication and use it to increase their effectiveness, as well as use it to understand more clearly what someone else is really saying.
A word of warning: Nonverbal cues can differ dramatically from culture to culture. An American hand gesture meaning “A-OK” would be viewed as obscene in some South American countries. Be careful.

Developing Communication Skills: Listening Skills
There are a number of situations when you need to solicit good information from others; these situations include interviewing candidates, solving work problems, seeking to help an employee on work performance, and finding out reasons for performance discrepancies.
Skill in communication involves a number of specific strengths. The first we will discuss involves listening skills. The following lists some suggests for effective listening when confronted with a problem at work: 

·         Listen openly and with empathy to the other person

·         Judge the content, not the messenger or delivery; comprehend before you judge

·         Use multiple techniques to fully comprehend (ask, repeat, rephrase, etc.)

·         Active body state; fight distractions

·         Ask the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide; paraphrase what the other is saying to make sure you understand it and check for understanding

·         Respond in an interested way that shows you understand the problem and the employee’s concern

·         Attend to non-verbal cues, body language, not just words; listen between the lines

·         Ask the other for his views or suggestions

·         State your position openly; be specific, not global

·         Communicate your feelings but don’t act them out (eg. tell a person that his behavior really upsets you; don’t get angry)

·         Be descriptive, not evaluative-describe objectively, your reactions, consequences

·         Be validating, not invalidating (“You wouldn’t understand”); acknowledge other’s uniqueness, importance

·         Be conjunctive, not disjunctive (not “I want to discuss this regardless of what you want to discuss”);

·         Don’t totally control conversation; acknowledge what was said

·         Own up: use “I”, not “They”… not “I’ve heard you are non-cooperative”

·         Don’t react to emotional words, but interpret their purpose

·         Practice supportive listening, not one way listening

·         Decide on specific follow-up actions and specific follow up dates

A major source of problem in communication is defensiveness. Effective communicators are aware that defensiveness is a typical response in a work situation especially when negative information or criticism is involved. Be aware that defensiveness is common, particularly with subordinates when you are dealing with a problem. Try to make adjustments to compensate for the likely defensiveness. Realize that when people feel threatened they will try to protect themselves; this is natural. This defensiveness can take the form of aggression, anger, competitiveness, avoidance among other responses. A skillful listener is aware of the potential for defensiveness and makes needed adjustment. He or she is aware that self-protection is necessary and avoids making the other person spend energy defending the self.
In addition, a supportive and effective listener does the following:

·         Stop Talking: Asks the other person for as much detail as he/she can provide; asks for other’s views and suggestions

·         Looks at the person, listens openly and with empathy to the employee; is clear about his position; be patient

·         Listen and Respond in an interested way that shows you understand the problem and the other’s concern is validating, not invalidating (“You wouldn’t understand”); acknowledge other;’s uniqueness, importance

·         Checks for understanding; paraphrases; asks questions for clarification 

·         Do not control conversation; acknowledges what was said; let’s the other finish before responding

·         Foucus on the problem, not the person; is descriptive and specific, not evaluative; focuses on content, not delivery or emotion

·         Attend to emotional as well as cognitive messages (e.g., anger); aware of non-verbal cues, body language, etc.; listen between the lines 

·         React to the message, not the person, delivery or emotion 

·         Make sure you comprehend before you judge; ask questions 

·         Use many techniques to fully comprehend 

·         Stay in an active body state to aid listening 

·         Fight distractions 

·         Take Notes; Decide on specific follow-up actions and specific follow up dates

Constructive Feedback: Developing Your Skills
“I don’t know how to turn her performance around; she never used to have these attendance problems and her work used to be so good; I don’t know why this is happening and what to do.”
This manager is struggling with one of the most important yet trickiest and most difficult management tasks: providing constructive and useful feedback to others. Effective feedback is absolutely essential to organizational effectiveness; people must know where they are and where to go next in terms of expectations and goals-yours, their own, and the organization.

Feedback taps basic human needs-to improve, to compete, to be accurate; people want to be competent. Feedback can be reinforcing; if given properly, feedback is almost always appreciated and motivates people to improve. But for many people, daily work is like bowling with a curtain placed between them and the pins; they receive little information.

Be aware of the many reasons why people are hesitant to give feedback; they include fear of causing embarrassment, discomfort, fear of an emotional reaction, and inability to handle the reaction. It is crucial that we realize how critical feedback can be and overcome our difficulties; it is very important and can be very rewarding but it requires skill, understanding, courage, and respect for yourself and others. Withholding constructive feedback is like sending people out on a dangerous hike without a compass. This is especially true in today’s fast changing and demanding workplace. Why managers are often reluctant to provide feedback? As important as feedback is, this critical managerial task remains one of the most problematic. Many managers would rather have root canal work than provide feedback to another-especially feedback that might be viewed as critical. Why are managers so reluctant to provide feedback? The reasons are many:

·         Fear of the other person’s reaction; people can get very defensive and emotional when confronted with feedback and many managers are very fearful of the reaction

·         The feedback may be based on subjective feeling and the manager may be unable to give concrete information if the other person questions the basis for the feedback

·         The information on which the feedback is based (eg. performance appraisal) may be a very flawed process and the manager may not totally trust the information

·         Many managers would prefer being a coach than “playing God.”

·         Other factors get in the way of effective communication or feedback sessions. Some of these reasons are:

·         Defensiveness, distorted perceptions, guilt, project, transference, distortions from the past

·         Misreading of body language, tone

·         Noisy transmission (unreliable messages, inconsistency)

·         Receiver distortion: selective hearing, ignoring non-verbal cues

·         Power struggles

·         Self-fulfilling assumptions

·         Language-different levels of meaning

·         Managers hesitation to be candid

·         Assumptions-eg. assuming others see situation same as you, has same feelings as you

·         Distrusted source, erroneous translation, value judgment, state of mind of two people

Characteristics of Effective Feedback

·         Effective Feedback has most of the following characteristics:

·         Descriptive (not evaluative) (avoids defensiveness.) By describing one’s own reactions, it leaves the individual fee to use it or not to use it as he sees fit..

·         avoid accusations; present data if necessary

·         describe your own reactions or feelings; describe objective consequences that have or will occur; focus on behavior and your own reaction, not on other individual or his or her attributes

·         suggest more acceptable alternative; be prepared to discuss additional alternatives; focus on alternatives

·         Specific rather than general.

·         Focused on behavior not the person. It is important that we refer to what a person does rather than to what we think he is. Thus we might say that a person “talked more than anyone else in this meeting” rather than that he is a “loud-mouth.”

·         It takes into account the needs of both the receiver and giver of feedback. It should be given to help, not to hurt. We too often give feedback because it makes us feel better or gives us a psychological advantage.

·         It is directed toward behavior which the receiver can do something about. A person gets frustrated when reminded of some shortcoming over which he has no control.

·         It is solicited rather than imposed. Feedback is most useful when the receiver himself has formulated the kind of question which those observing him can answer or when he actively seeks feedback.

·         Feedback is useful when well-timed (soon after the behavior-depending, of course, on the person’s readiness to hear it, support available from others, and so forth). Excellent feedback presented at an inappropriate time may do more harm than good.

·         Sharing of information, rather than giving advice allows a person to decide for himself, in accordance with his own goals and needs. When we give advice we tell him what to do, and to some degree take away his freedom to do decide for himself.

·         It involves the amount of information the receiver can use rather than the amount we would like to give. To overload a person with feedback is to reduce the possibility that he may be able to use what he receives effectively. When we give more than can be used, we are more often than not satisfying some need of our own rather than helping the other person.

·         It concerns what is said and done, or how, not why. The “why” involves assumptions regarding motive or intent and this tends to alienate the person generate resentment, suspicion, and distrust. If we are uncertain of his motives or intent, this uncertainty itself is feedback, however, and should be revealed.

·         It is checked to insure clear communication. One way of doing this is to have the receiver try to rephrase the feedback. No matter what the intent, feedback is often threatening and thus subject to considerable distortion or misinterpretation.

·         It is checked to determine degree of agreement from others. Such “consensual validation” is of value to both the sender and receiver.

·         It is followed by attention to the consequences of the feedback. The supervisor needs to become acutely aware of the effects of his feedback.

It is an important step toward authenticity. Constructive feedback opens the way to a relationship which is built on trust, honest, and genuine concern and mutual growth.

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A map with a scale of 1:500,000 would represent which type of map?


Question 1 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

A map with a scale of 1:500,000 would represent which type of map?

A. Small scale map

B. Large scale map

C. Medium scale map

D. Spatial scale map

Question 2 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

The prime meridian passes through:

A. Paris, France.

B. New York City.

C. Greenwich, England.

D. the Indian Ocean.

Question 3 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

Transform faults are typically found in regions where tectonic plate boundaries are moving parallel to one another, and are the site of frequent earthquakes. A good example of such a location is:

A. the San Andreas Fault.

B. Iceland.

C. the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

D. the Andes Mountains

Question 4 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

The energy that allows tectonic plates to interact on the earth’s surface is supplied by:

A. the sun.

B. the molten interior.

C. greenhouse gases.

D. ocean currents.

Question 5 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

Hurricanes and cyclones originate:

A. in the tropics

B. in temperate latitudes

C. near the poles

D. in the center of large land masses

Question 6 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

The pampas region of Argentina would be an example of which of the following biomes?

A. Desert biome

B. Forest biome

C. Polar biome

D. Grassland biome

Question 7 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement designed to address the issue of:

A. the spread of AIDS.

B. global poverty and underdevelopment

C. the emission of greenhouse gases

D. the militarization of space

Question 8 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

Language is frequently a key component of identity for many people. The Quebecois, an ethnic group in Quebec, speak what language that differentiates them from most other Canadians?

A. French

B. German

C. Spanish

D. Italian

Question 9 of 20                                                                                                         5.0/ 5.0 Points

A cultural hearth is a region from which technologies, ideologies, and material goods diffused over time to surrounding regions. An example of a cultural hearth is:

A. central South America

B. Mesopotamia

C. Australia

D. Easter Island.

Question 10 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

The infant mortality rate for a country is defined as the:

A. the percentage of infants who perish at birth. 
B. the number of female infants killed, due to preference for males. 
C. the number of abortions, stillbirths, and accidental deaths in a given year. 
D. the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births during the first year of life

Question 11 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

When a country has a single city that has several times the population of any other city, it is called the/a:

A. megalopolis. 
B. primate city. 
C. capital city. 
D. growth pole.  

 Question 12 of 20                                                                                                      5.0/ 5.0 Points

__________ is the study of population structure and change


B. Economics

C. Demography

D. Geography

Question 13 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

An example of a nongovernmental organization (NGO) is:

A. the U.S. Department of State

B. Exxon Mobile Petroleum Corporation

C. Greenpeace

D. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Question 14 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

Among the following organizations devoted to fostering trade, the one with the largest number of member states is:





Question 15 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

The modern materially wealthy countries achieved their prominence from the __________ sector of production in manufacturing and construction.

A. tertiary

B. primary

C. secondary

D. quaternary

Question 16 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

__________ corporations make goods or provide services for profit in several countries but direct operations from a headquarters in one country.

A. Multinational

B. Off-shoring

C. International

D. Free-market

Question 17 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

The second most productive economy in the world, as measured in total output by value, is the economy of:

A. Germany

B. Japan

C. Canada

D. China

Question 18 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

In many of the materially poor countries today, few jobs in the __________ pay taxable salaries.

A. formal economy

B. service sector

C. core countries

D. peripheral communities

Question 19 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

The Grameen Bank, a highly successful microcredit institution, was founded in:

A. Germany

B. Brazil.

C. Bangladesh

D. Japan

Question 20 of 20                                                                                                       5.0/ 5.0 Points

The concept of __________ rights emerged in the late 1700s, in part from revolutions in Europe and the United States.

A. social

B. human

C. cultural

D. political




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Flemish, one of the two official languages of belgium, belongs to


Question 1 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

Flemish, one of the two official languages of Belgium, belongs to which of Europe’s major language families?

A. Germanic

B. Romance

C. Slavic

D. Celtic

Question 2 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

The country with the largest economy in Europe, sometimes referred to as the “motor” of Europe, is:

A. France.

B. Spain.

C. the United Kingdom.

D. Germany.

Question 3 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

The European country that is a major exporter of crude oil to world markets is:

A. Norway.

B. Switzerland.

C. France

D. the Czech Republic

Question 4 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

In Europe, the majority of the workforce is employed in the __________ sector.

A. agricultural

B. heavy industrial

C. service

D. primary

Question 5 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

Tourism is Europe’s most important industry. The leading country, based on total number of tourist arrivals, is:

A. the United Kingdom.

B. Switzerland.

C. Germany.

D. France.

Question 6 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

The territory of the former country of East Germany was occupied by the army of which country, at the conclusion of WWII?

A. France

B. The United States

C. The Soviet Union

D. Greece

Question 7 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

Which of the following statements most accurately characterizes Northern Europe?

A. Most countries in the region have GDP per capita figures lower than the European average.

B. Unlike the remainder of western Europe, this region has very little industry, and is entirely dependent on fishing and agriculture to support economic growth.

C. Many of these countries have been reluctant historically to join international organizations, due to long traditions of neutrality.

D. The population in all the countries of the region, except for Sweden, have relatively low levels of education.

Question 8 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

The Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP) was designed to:

A. reduce levels of pollution in the Mediterranean Sea.

B. increase economic cooperation among the countries in Mediterranean Europe.

C. reduce illegal immigration to countries in the Mediterranean basin.

D. attract tourism by greatly increasing the number of beach resorts in the region.

Question 9 of 20                                                                                                         5.0 Points

Two European countries rejected the invitation to join the EU in 1995. One of these countries is:

A. Switzerland.

B. Germany.

C. Belgium.

D. Finland.

Question 10 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

In the 1960s and 1970s, a major source of immigrant labor for Germany, the so-called gastarbeiter, was the country of:

A. India.

B. Turkey.

C. South Africa.

D. China.

Question 11 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

The Ob River flows through what region?

A. Central Asia

B. Siberia

C. Moldova

D. Ukraine

Question 12 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

Which of the following best describes the physical region known as the taiga?

A. Subtropical vegetation, with poor soils

B. A zone of extensive desert and scrub vegetation

C. A vast grassland, containing extremely fertile soils

D. A zone of coniferous forest


Question 13 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

Chernozem soils are associated with which of the following vegetation zones?

A. Steppe

B. Taiga

C. Tundra

D. Desert

Question 14 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

The greatest temperature ranges in the region, due to the effect of continentality, are experienced in:

A. Estonia

B. Siberia.

C. Armenia.

D. the Volga Basin.

Question 15 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

The yurt is a national symbol for which of the following groups?

A. Kyrgyz

B. Russians

C. Georgians

D. Chukchi

Question 16 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

Regarding the population geography of Russia and Neighboring Countries:

A. Slavic countries show the highest rates of growth.

B. all states of the former USSR are losing population, and Russia and Ukraine are losing the fastest.

C. fertility rates are higher in the Central Asian states, and death rates are declining there as well.

D. None of the above

Question 17 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

The first Russian leader to use the title “czar” was:

A. Ivan the III.

B. Catherine the Great.

C. Mikhail Romanov.

D. Boris Yeltsin.

Question 18 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

Of the following countries, the one that is culturally closest to the Romanians is:

A. Azerbaijan.

B. Moldova.

C. Latvia.

D. Russia.

Question 19 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

Two former USSRs (now independent countries) have recently been at war over the disputed territory of Nagorno Karabakh. These countries are:

A. Russia and Georgia.

B. Azerbaijan and Armenia.

C. Armenia and Georgia.

D. Georgia and Moldova.

Question 20 of 20                                                                                                       5.0 Points

The Aral Sea is vanishing because:

A. too much water was taken out of it for irrigation.

B. wells in the region caused the water table to fall, and made the Aral shrink.

C. the acreage devoted to cotton increased, meaning more fresh water was taken for irrigation from the rivers feeding the Aral.

D. All the above





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