Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies.

Application: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies
Critique Template for a Mixed-Methods Study
NURS 6052
Week 6 Assignment: Application: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies (due by Day 7 of Week 7)
Date:
Your name:
Article reference:
Petersen, L., Woodard, D., Urech, T., Daw, C., & Sookanan, S. (2006). Does Pay-for Performance Improve the Quality of Healthcare? Annals of Internal Medicine 145(4)
URL: http://www.annals.org/article.aspx?articleid=727450
What is a critique? Simply stated, a critique is a critical analysis undertaken for some purpose. Nurses critique research for three main reasons: to improve their practice, to broaden their understanding, and to provide a base for the conduct of a study.
When the purpose is to improve practice, nurses must give special consideration to questions such as these:
• Are the research findings appropriate to my practice setting and situation?
• What further research or pilot studies need to be done, if any, before incorporating findings into practice to assure both safety and effectiveness?
• How might a proposed change in practice trigger changes in other aspects of practice?
To help you synthesize your learning throughout this course and prepare you to utilize research in your practice, you will be critiquing a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods research study of your choice.
If the article is unavailable in a full-text version through the Walden University Library, you must e-mail the article as a PDF or Word attachment to your Instructor.
MIXED-METHODS RESEARCH CRITIQUE
1. Research Issue and Purpose
The research question and purpose was intended to answer the question of whether financial incentives increase the quality of healthcare.
1. Researcher Pre-understandings and / or Hypotheses and Research Questions
The article has an explicit overview of the researcher’s pre-understanding of the topic and the researcher’s professional perspectives are included.
There is no clear mention of hypothesis but it can be inferred from the researcher’s analysis of the topic. Financial incentives can alter the healthcare worker behavior and thus can lead to improvement in provision of services.
2. Literature Review
There is appropriate literature review of recent publications on the same and similar topic. The article also mentions the use of the financial incentive concept in may healthcare facilities.
3. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
The research study draws its theoretical framework from all the fields of healthcare ranging from preventive to curative services.
4. Participants
There were no physical participants since the study used secondary data from previous research.
5. Protection of Human Research Participants
Since there were no participants, there was thus no need for protection of the participants.
6. Research Design
The design of the study involved collection of English literature articles in PubMed from the year 1980 to 2005 that were involved in the study of the impact of financial incentives on the quality of healthcare. It also involved consultation of the experts when it was realized that the publication of some research were not available.
7. Instruments, Data Collection, Data Generation Methods
The study involved the use of publications and thus data was obtained from the previous findings. Therefore, the issues of reliability would not arise. Observational studies were also conducted in some instances, thus there would be some questioning about the reliability of the data obtained from such method.
8. Credibility
The data that were obtained from the articles were credible since they were retrieved from credible sources. The data obtained from observations may raise some credibility issues that are not tackled in the article.
9. Data Analysis
The analysis of the findings was done appropriately and the articles were grouped into descriptions or evaluations. There are tables in that article that breaks down the findings, making it easy for the analysis.
10. Findings
The study found out that there were studies that had been carried out on financial incentives that were provided at the payment system level. Other studies evaluated the use of financial incentives that were directed to provider groups, and at the physician level. All these studies found positive effects of the incentives.
11. Discussion of Findings
The discussions of the findings are done explicitly and the article are grouped as per their intended objectives and their findings and discussed together.
12. Limitations
The research study found out that each of the articles had limitations in that they gave the relationships between incentives and quality but they lacked specificity about the incentives and the best design to be used. This article also does not provide the best design that can be used in implementation of the issuance of the incentives.
13. Implications
Despite the fact that financial incentives seem to affect the quality of care, they require careful design since they may result into adverse selection.
14. Recommendations
The study recommends further research on the best possible design that can be used in giving the financial incentives such that the best results of improvement in the quality of care can be achieved.
15. Research Utilization in Your Practice
This research forms a basis on which further research can be done to ensure that there is the best mode of provision of financial incentives to healthcare workers to ensure that they provide quality service. It also gives the negative implications of overreliance on the incentives and thus cautions fore care to be used when giving incentives. Therefore, the healthcare management should be keen when handling the issue
Critique Template for a Quantitative Study
NURS 6052
Week 6 Assignment: Application: Critiquing Quantitative, Qualitative, or Mixed Methods Studies (due by Day 7 of Week 7)
Date:
Your name:
Article reference:
Grimshaw, J., Eccles, M., Thomas, R., MacLennan, G., Ramsey, C., Fraser, C., & Vale, L. (2006). Toward Evidence based Quality Improvement: Evidence (and its limitations) of the Effectiveness of Guideline Dissemination and Implementation Strategies 1966-1998. Journal of Internal Medicine 21(S2)14-20
URL: www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00357.x/full
What is a critique? Simply stated, a critique is a critical analysis undertaken for some purpose. Nurses critique research for three main reasons: to improve their practice, to broaden their understanding, and to provide a base for the conduct of a study.
When the purpose is to improve practice, nurses must give special consideration to questions such as these:
• Are the research findings appropriate to my practice setting and situation?
• What further research or pilot studies need to be done, if any, before incorporating findings into practice to assure both safety and effectiveness?
• How might a proposed change in practice trigger changes in other aspects of practice?
To help you synthesize your learning throughout this course and prepare you to utilize research in your practice, you will be critiquing a qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods research study of your choice.
If the article is unavailable in a full-text version through the Walden University Library, you must e-mail the article as a PDF or Word attachment to your Instructor.
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CRITIQUE
2. Research Problem and Purpose
The purpose of the research is to determine the effectiveness and the costs of different guideline dissemination and implementation strategies of evidence based quality improvement procedures.
3. Hypotheses and Research Questions
There are no clearly pointed out hypothesis but the study aims at finding out whether there is improvement in the quality of care as a result of dissemination and implementation strategies of the evidence based quality Improvement programs
4. Literature Review
There is minimal efforts to tackle literature review in the paper even though the papers mentions some findings of similar or related research that had been done earlier. Instead, the paper reviews the guidelines of dissemination and implementation.
5. Theoretical or Conceptual Framework
A theoretical framework of all the aspects of healthcare is identified in the article.
6. Population
Data sources were sampled from six different categories of publications namely the MEDLINE, HEALTH STAR, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, EMBASE, SIGLE, and The Specialized Register of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization Care Group. These were obtained through cluster and individual randomized controlled trials and the search results were screened by two independent reviewers.
7. Protection of Human Research Participants
There were no human research subjects hence no need for any protection.
8. Research Design
The research involved the use of secondary data that was obtained from the existing records.
9. Instruments and Strategies for Measurement
The measurement strategies were base on comparisons of data from the previous researches and thus there was no need for reliability and validity measurement.
10. Data Collection
Data was collected from those in the records from the documents that were used for the research.
11. Data Analysis
Data analysis involved comparisons of the data from the different information from the documents and also the yearly comparisons of the data from those documents. Based on the objectives of the study, this was the best method of analysis.
12. Interpretation of Results
With 309 comparisons that were derived from 235 studies, the results provided sufficient information that would give the best interpretation of the findings.
13. Discussion of Findings
The discussions were in line with the results and were aimed at tackling the research objectives. For example, 86.6% of the comparisons indicated improvement in care as seen through the determination of the median improvement that ranged from 14.1% to 6.0% in different clusters. These findings were expected and consistent with the previous findings.
14. Limitations
The researchers acknowledge that the study was somewhat complex and that the research suffered from publication bias due to the numerous publications that were published within the period. The study only studied the studies that had been published from 1966 to 1998. The researcher acknowledges that the conclusions were overly optimistic.
15. Implications
The research findings do not give the decision makers the ultimate choice of the type of intervention to be used but it allows the decision makers to make their own choices. It, however, shows the need for the use of the intervention practices because of the improvement in care that is seen.
16. Recommendations
The replication of the study is possible since the study involved the use published documents. The researchers recommend that future research should focus on developing a better theoretical understanding of the professional and organizational behavior change so that it can be incorporated into the study. It also recommends a more rigorous study so as to obtain robust evidence on the effectiveness of the strategies.
17. Research Utilization in Your Practice
The findings of this research shows that Evidence based quality improvement measures have an impact on the care because it improves the quality of care. It is therefore important to always incorporate the best methodology of implementation of the procedures so as to even further improve the quality of care. Further research needs to be conducted on the different methods of implementation so as to ascertain the method that improves the quality more. The knowledge and the use of the best methodology will improve the care and thus less case of infections and deaths will be reported. Research triggers changes in other aspects of practice?
How the particular circumstances of a research study dictate the most appropriate approach for the study?
Introduction
Quantitative and Qualitative research techniques are the two main approaches to research studies. A Mixed Approach is another method that integrates both the qualitative and quantitative approaches. The type of approach to be used in a study will be determined by the circumstances that prevail at the time of study, the issues to be studied, and the expected outcome.
Quantitative research is a type of research that is done on an inquiry that can be accurately and precisely measured while qualitative research is carried out of issues that cannot be precisely and accurately measured.
Qualitative research is suitable for obtaining an in-depth understanding of the reasons and motivations that causes something and thus it generates ideas and hypotheses for quantitative survey (Holloway & Wheeler, 2013). The data collection in qualitative research is based on flexible techniques such as unstructured interviews and even group discussions. On the other hand, quantitative survey utilizes highly structured and rigid techniques of data collection such as pre-formulated questions.
According to Holloway and Wheeler (2013), the qualitative research is always exploratory and investigative while quantitative research provides an insight in which some recommendations can be made. The qualitative survey does not involve statistical data analysis as is the case with quantitative survey (Holloway & Wheeler, 2013). Generally, qualitative research provides detailed information that leads to an in-depth understanding of the study while quantitative survey generates a reliable data that can be use in determining the cause-and-effect relationships in a scenario (Diab, 2012).
Conclusion
In the scenario given, I would prefer to use a mixed approach research method because it will give the necessary information that would enable further improvement of the new program as well as offer the explanations for the success or the failure of the project. It would be easy to use questionnaire on the family members than on the patients who are in waiting at the emergency room.

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